🥀شیخ محمد علی امینی مدتی پیش در صفحه اینستاگرامش کلیپی برای تشویق مردم به ختنه کردن دختران منتشر کرد. شاید اگر #ناقص_سازی_جنسی_دختران در ایران منع قانونی محکمی داشت او اکنون به دلیل تشویق مردم به انجام جرم و عملی غیر شرعی محکوم می شد.
قدم های اولی که برای آگاهی رساندن در حوزه #ختنه_دختران برداشتم با گرفتن فتوا از مراجع اهل تشیع شروع شد. بعد از سالها کار و جمع آوری منابع به خودم گفتم شاید بشه شانسمو امتحان کنم و دل به دریا بزنم و با شیوخ اهل سنت در مورد ختنه دختران صحبت کنم. پس از دوستانم کمک گرفتم و شروع کردم به گرفتن وقت ملاقات از شیوخ در شهرهای ریز و درشت جنوب ایران.
با اینکه همه میگفتند وای شیوخ واقعا؟!!! حرف زدن درباره ختنه با آنها؟! من اما واقعا تجربه شیرینی از گفتگوها داشتم. در کمال همدلی و متانت در مورد معضل بخشی از زنان ایران حرف زدیم که شاید پیش از آن کسی برای شکستن تابو دل به دریا نزده بود.
نتیجه آن گفتگوهای رو در رو و شخصی شد فتوای معتبری از هیئت فتوادهندگان اهل سنت و جماعت جنوب ایران
در این بین اما هنوز برخی از شیوخ هستند که با پافشاری تلاش دارند سنت های نسبت داده شده به دوران حکومت پیامبر (ص) را زنده کنند. حال آنکه برای سنت بودن این عمل در دوران پیامبر سندی ندارند. آن هم پیامبری که دختران را از زنده به گوری نجات داد. یکی از این شیوخ، شیخ محمد امینی است. ایشان یکی از شیوخ معتبر جزیره قشم هستند. با او نیز دیداری داشتم که نتیجه آن همین حرفهاییست که در این کلیپ هم زده شده است. ما تلاش کردیم در این کلیپ پاسخی به او بدهیم.
A while back, Sheikh Mohammadali Amini, one of the Sunni sheikhs of “Qeshm” posted a video on his Instagram page and spoke of female genital mutilation (FGM) as an Makruma action (an act which is viewed as an honorable deed). His remarks were in contradiction with a Fatwa that was published on Tuesday, Decemeber 18 2018 by the Stop FGM Iran Network. The fatwa that was provided to the network by the board of jurists of southern Iran, proclaims FGM as an act, free of mandate from Sharia law. Sheikh Amini’s utterance led many of southern Iranians to confusion, as prior to his post, they were assured that the documents suggesting the mandate of FGM were incorrect, in light of the newly issued Fatwa. To resolve such concerns, Rayehe Mozafarian, author, researcher and the founder of “Stop FGM Iran” has decided to answer some commonly posed questions.
We sit together in the hall waiting for our turn. As always in the ultrasound room, I and more clients are women. Only a few men are watching us with impatience. She is sitting next to me pushing the armrest. The pain was easily observable in his face. Her hand vessels turn out with anger every time. She pains. The hot weather rushes as always ahead. The space of hall is shut and discomfort. I look at her number. 58! To reach her turn, the doctor should see 8 persons others. Although I have no experience on this issue but I start the conversation in order to get rid of the dullness of the clockwise.
She has only 23 years old. She got married at age 16. Now she has three children and her eldest son goes to school next year. Early marriage in the rural district of Kahurestan (one of the nearby villages of Bandar Abbas) is not an unusual story. Her husband works in Dubai. He works in the shop of one of the intimate persons and sells sacks and glues and whatever the dhows want to sell. He rarely comes to Iran, just a few months in a year. In any her childbirth, he was not on her side. Last child was 8 months when her father saw her. She also works in the land of her husband’s father. They cultivate the summer crops and tomato.
My turn comes. When I came back she was not and her chair was empty. Perhaps she did not tolerate and take refuge elsewhere. As soon as said Hormozgan women, we unconsciously remember the image of colorful veils and port nice pants and costly. We remember the women covering veils with beautiful long and short dresses. Hanna tattoos on their hands and the brown cute faces of them when passing under the palm trees have been observed in films mostly.
Our mental image about Hormozgan women only is limited to their covers and color of skins; the local coverage that can be particularly attributed to Hormozgan women. But really are Hormozgan women hidden their real faces under their veils and colorful covers?
In 2015 in Hormozgan Province, 42 women less than 15 gave birth to a baby. From these, 18 cases were in cities and 24 cases were in villages. Also, 2975 women between the ages of 15 to 19 years living in this area gave birth to their children in this province. As a whole, Hormozgan is the province which the highest rates of child marriage occur in.
The table below lists the marriage of girls at different ages. The figures in this table are remarkable according to statistics of the marriage registration offices and national organization of civil registration. There have been recorded 9 marriages in girls less than 10, 595 marriages in girls between 10 to 14 years was recorded in just one year. While this province is one of areas that have a lot of unregistered marriages or delayed registered marriages.
Table 1: The number of registered marriages due to the ages of women at the time of marriage
One hypothesis has been always discussed:
Is early marriage one of the reasons of maternal and infant mortality?
Partly the answer to this question is yes because for having a healthy baby, the mother should have a healthy capable efficient body. Early marriage and subsequent early pregnancies cause the mothers’ body have no growth opportunities and the full development and leading to compact and short fetus. So there is no time for the evolution and productivity in order that the children do not have the process of proper development of full maturity.
The fact is that we have heard from the management of Hormozgan women less.
In most regions of Hormozgan Province, the men work in countries neighboring Persian Gulf, because of its proximity and the effective fields for economic activities and even they force to be far away from their families over many years. During this time, young women gained the responsibility of life very soon and are married at early ages due to traditional marriages and have children should manage the families in all aspects and the economical management of families, savings, responsibility for children training and animal husbandry in the absence of the husband without proper training in this field
In fact, women, as the sole administrator in their families, have the dual role.
Worldwide, 156 million men alive today were married during their childhood; according to a recent study by UNICEF. This data of a huge number of child grooms is published while little research being done to address the issue. UNICEF statistics also show that boys’ early marriage counts 18% of total cases of child marriages before age 18. However, it should be noticed that this proportion is not fixed in different areas and in certain regions the percentages may even reverse. In some areas of India, for instance, boys marriage before their age of majority is more common than girls’ early marriage.
Across 52 countries of the World, there is no legal limitation on the marriage of girls under age 15. This number turns to 23 countries when talking about underage boys. It means that the rules of 23 countries allow the parents to force their boys to marry under the age of 15. Consequently, these boys won’t have the chance to resist against it even later when they reach the age of majority.
The international community is taking the case of child brides in priority of awareness activities because early marriage affects girls in far greater numbers than boys. However, it would be against children and human rights to ignore the boys. Same as the girls, the negative consequences of early boys marriage could be studied and measured. Boys are forced to leave school and engage with low-level jobs. This leads to the continuation of a poverty cycle. The purpose of ending child marriage is to help break the intergenerational cycle of poverty.
Iran is among the countries in which the law does not provide any specific definition of the age of majority; thus enables the boy’s guardians to make them marry before the age 15. According to article 1041 of Iranian Civil Code, the marriage of a girl before the age of 13 and of a boy before the age of 15 (puberty age) is a subject of their guardian permission and on the condition of taking proper interests into consideration and at the discretion of the competent court.
As usual, Campaign of Stop Early Marriages in Iran is going to publish a series of annual statistical reports about the situation of child marriage and other related problems up to the end of this year. A statistical view and analysis of data will help the readers to better understand the current situation.
According to the National Organization for Civil Registration, from March 2015 to March 2016 (1394), 314 boys under age 15 and 27811 boys between 15-19 have entered into marriage. Furthermore, during the same period, 1 divorce case of a boy under age 15 and 1217 divorce cases of the boys between 15-19 have been recorded. There are 2 important points that should be considered here:
This data only refers to the cases that are registered in formal marriage/divorce registration offices. While many of the marriage cases are not formally registered before the parties come to the majority age or there are special needs for legal procedures for example in the case of childbearing.
If the person is under age 15 when marrying and more than 15 when divorcing, this case will be recorded in the older group of age.
When studying child marriage and its consequences, it is important to pay attention to the age of both wife and husband. The age distribution table of child marriage and divorce shows that during the year 1394 (march 2015-march 2016), 314 boys under age 15 have entered marriage. Referring to the divorce data, we may assume that a number of the boys who have divorced at an age between 15-19, had been entered marriage few year earlier; when they had been under age of 15.
She is only 13. Her breasts have only just started to grow. She is barely 155 cm tall. Everyone seems to think she is the type not to grow fat. She tries to behave politely and elegantly. Listening to me attentively, she carefully considers her responses. “What made you marry?”, I ask. She doesn’t reply immediately. Thinking for a while she finally answers: “He was a nice boy and my family approved of him.” “How did your family come to terms with your young age and his?” I enquire. “They initially told me that they thought I was too young but eventually they gave in to my wish”, she says. I sense contradiction in her words. She herself did not know how she ended up married to this only just 20, motorbike loving boy, with barely the ability to grow a moustache.
“Have you thought about the future of your education? You are only in the 7th grade! What does your husband think of the matter?” “God will help”, she responds. It seems her husband hasn’t yet made his thoughts clear on the issue. She, however, knows that things are not going to be easy for her.
“Why him? Did you ever imagine that you would be married just two months after your 13th birthday?” I inquire. “He was my best suitor, the best chance I had for marriage” she plainly answered. “Have you forgotten that you are only 13 my dear?” I ask with great astonishment. She had believed herself to be a grown up; ready to marry a boy who himself had a long journey to manhood.
۱۳ year old Fatemeh defends both her decision to marry and her resistance to the disapproval of her illiterate parents. She no longer wants to continue the conversation. I notice her husband’s photo as her phone screensaver; seeing my glance she hurriedly conceals her phone from view, as though she wants to hide him away from me, scared of the many questions that might follow. She is tired of telling everyone that she is happy and without problems; she’s terrified to think that her life might not turn out as she had dreamt.
Fatemeh is not the only girl here in Bastak that has married young. There are so many girls her age already busy nurturing their kids in this region. Mothers, still children themselves, share their bed with boys eager to prove their manhood.
Early marriage can mostly be found in villages that associate womanhood with being a housewife. Most of these girls are promised to someone before reaching the legal age of 13; pledges that are made legal as soon as they reach that age. As a result it is hard to ascertain the exact number of females under the age of 15 getting married in the area of Bastak. Unfortunately, despite attempts made by Iranian welfare organisations and continued ‘reach-out’ work, the statistics showing the number of couples getting married with at least one partner being under 18 is growing yearly and requires special attention from the authorities.
The latest report of Global Foundation, “Save the Children”, found that every year more than 4.5 million children younger than 15 years are forced to marry. It means every seven seconds one child marries! Here, I show why the concept of forced child marriage should be redefined. According to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, no one can enforce children under 18 years old to marry and everyone, especially a child has right to decide about his/her body and life.
Child marriage is a kind of sexual harassment which happens in the name of custom, tradition, religion and law. Therefore, forced child marriage should be called “child rape and Pedophilia”. My thesis is that UNICEF should redefine the concept according to the related conventions and commitments which many governments have ratified. Some of my arguments are: 1. In this way, nobody can abuse the tradition or local customs to enforce children to marry an adult. 2. The common definition of pedophilia is the abuse of prepubescent child, but from a sociological perspective it should be redefine based on the social age not the biological recognition of the body. The old definition of the pedophilia cannot protect the children who are at the risk of adult sexual harassment by the name of marriage. 3. By renaming this concept, UNICEF and social activists would have a stronger tool to forbid sexual harassment of children in the name of customs and moral, so they can use this modern and humanistic moral approach against the old, non-humanistic and traditional one. 4. This terminology can change child marriage from an honorable tradition to a shameful behavior. Consequently, family and community members will face a moral challenge by arranging a child marriage.
download the complete report here (pdf, word) to find the resources:
Iran is a young country, with more than 28 million inhabitants under the age of 18 in 2011. However, the vast potential of this young, bright population is largely being squandered as a result of poor education policies, discriminatory legislation and insufficient child protections. Iran’s young people face a myriad of major challenges to their development, and it is essential that government and civil society work more closely together to develop long-term solutions.
Over the course of this report, we will engage with three primary clusters of rights taken from the core reporting clusters of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. These core reporting clusters include the right of children to be protected from violence, the right to education, and the right to health. Through an exploration of these three clusters, we hope to illustrate a number of the key obstacles to the happiness and full development of Iran’s young people.
This report will provide an overview of the current landscape around children’s rights in Iran and the challenges facing activists, advocates and children’s rights organisations as they work to improve the situation of young people in the country today. It will achieve this through an analysis of the internationally recognised legal frameworks that guarantee the rights of minors, the national legislation that exists to support these objectives, and a brief overview of a number of areas in which Iran is in violation of internationally recognised norms.
The report will also highlight the specific needs of Iranian children’s rights activists and organisations through a series of interviews with leading figures in the field and an analysis of a number of digital initiatives that have been established to raise awareness and mobilise the public around children’s rightsrelated issues. We will then outline a series of recommendations for the Iranian government, the activist community, and the international community which we hope will prove valuable in the development of future policy in the field of children’s rights, and maximise the opportunities available to Iran’s young people in the coming decades
FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION IN IRAN
At the same time as underaged labour deprives children of bright futures, the scourge of child marriage locks many young girls and boys into a troubled present, vulnerable to violence, sexual abuse, and poor health. Additional threats to young girls’ reproductive health arise from the persistence of the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) among a number of marginal communities, constituting a terrible violation of young girls’ human rights, and a real danger to their lives.
In the face of all these challenges, however, civil society is mobilising itself. Groups are being set up in urban and rural communities to provide schoolbooks and new facilities for economically deprived children. Other activists are developing campaigns about the negative impacts of child marriage and FGM, and are working with local community leaders to push back against these practices. But far more support is needed, both from Iranian authorities and the international community.
By speaking with activists on the ground and assessing a number of the initiatives they have developed in digital spaces, we aim to help provide some direction for Iranian and international organisations as they develop capacity building initiatives to support the great work being done by civil society organisations in Iran.
‘Stop FGM in Iran’ is a campaign aiming to eradicate the practice of FGM in Iran by educating the public about its disastrous effects upon girls’ and women’s physical and mental health. The website is aimed at providing information to the general public, and showcasing the organisation’s work to potential donors and supporters.
The website contains a variety of information about the practice of FGM, as well as information about the organisation’s events and seminars, stories from victims of FGM, and materials to draw public attention to the issue.
The campaigners argue that more needs to be done in order to completely eradicate the practice of FGM in Iran, through raising public awareness about the negative health impacts and providing government officials with information about its prevalence and practice. Much of the organisation’s own awareness-raising work is achieved through conducting seminars in the four worst affected provinces, and through engaging in face-to-face discussions with local people. The group also carries out documentation work of instances of FGM, which is then integrated into the group’s advocacy and public awareness initiatives.
The site is well-structured, and is well-populated with diverse content ranging from emotive stories to statistical analyses of FGM in Iran. However, a weakness of the site arises in the seemingly low levels of user engagement with most content. Similarly, the group’s Facebook community is only partially engaged with the group’s content. Although many posts manage to inspire a handful of shares, the number of discussions arising from the content appears to be minimal. Additionally, the campaign lacks any clear calls to
action that could serve to mobilise its not inconsiderable following to engage in actions to support the campaign’s objectives.
The campaign shares a Telegram channel with the Stop Early Marriage in Iran campaign. This channel shares website content from each of the two campaigns it features, alongside relevant news articles, images, and documentation.