CHILD GROOMS IN IRAN
A statistical review by:
Stop Early Marriages in Iran
Worldwide, 156 million men alive today were married during their childhood; according to a recent study by UNICEF. This data of a huge number of child grooms is published while little research being done to address the issue. UNICEF statistics also show that boys’ early marriage counts 18% of total cases of child marriages before age 18. However, it should be noticed that this proportion is not fixed in different areas and in certain regions the percentages may even reverse. In some areas of India, for instance, boys marriage before their age of majority is more common than girls’ early marriage.
Across 52 countries of the World, there is no legal limitation on the marriage of girls under age 15. This number turns to 23 countries when talking about underage boys. It means that the rules of 23 countries allow the parents to force their boys to marry under the age of 15. Consequently, these boys won’t have the chance to resist against it even later when they reach the age of majority.
The international community is taking the case of child brides in priority of awareness activities because early marriage affects girls in far greater numbers than boys. However, it would be against children and human rights to ignore the boys. Same as the girls, the negative consequences of early boys marriage could be studied and measured. Boys are forced to leave school and engage with low-level jobs. This leads to the continuation of a poverty cycle. The purpose of ending child marriage is to help break the intergenerational cycle of poverty.
Iran is among the countries in which the law does not provide any specific definition of the age of majority; thus enables the boy’s guardians to make them marry before the age 15. According to article 1041 of Iranian Civil Code, the marriage of a girl before the age of 13 and of a boy before the age of 15 (puberty age) is a subject of their guardian permission and on the condition of taking proper interests into consideration and at the discretion of the competent court.
As usual, Campaign of Stop Early Marriages in Iran is going to publish a series of annual statistical reports about the situation of child marriage and other related problems up to the end of this year. A statistical view and analysis of data will help the readers to better understand the current situation.
According to the National Organization for Civil Registration, from March 2015 to March 2016 (1394), 314 boys under age 15 and 27811 boys between 15-19 have entered into marriage. Furthermore, during the same period, 1 divorce case of a boy under age 15 and 1217 divorce cases of the boys between 15-19 have been recorded. There are 2 important points that should be considered here:
- This data only refers to the cases that are registered in formal marriage/divorce registration offices. While many of the marriage cases are not formally registered before the parties come to the majority age or there are special needs for legal procedures for example in the case of childbearing.
- If the person is under age 15 when marrying and more than 15 when divorcing, this case will be recorded in the older group of age.
When studying child marriage and its consequences, it is important to pay attention to the age of both wife and husband. The age distribution table of child marriage and divorce shows that during the year 1394 (march 2015-march 2016), 314 boys under age 15 have entered marriage. Referring to the divorce data, we may assume that a number of the boys who have divorced at an age between 15-19, had been entered marriage few year earlier; when they had been under age of 15.
Rayehe Mozafarian- Samire Hanaei
Report Of Stop Early Marriage In Iran
We sit together in the hall waiting for our turn. As always in the ultrasound room, I and more clients are women. Only a few men are watching us with impatience. She is sitting next to me pushing the armrest. The pain was easily observable in his face. Her hand vessels turn out with anger every time. She pains. The hot weather rushes as always ahead. The space of hall is shut and discomfort. I look at her number. 58! To reach her turn, the doctor should see 8 persons others. Although I have no experience on this issue but I start the conversation in order to get rid of the dullness of the clockwise.
She has only 23 years old. She got married at age 16. Now she has three children and her eldest son goes to school next year. Early marriage in the rural district of Kahurestan (one of the nearby villages of Bandar Abbas) is not an unusual story. Her husband works in Dubai. He works in the shop of one of the intimate persons and sells sacks and glues and whatever the dhows want to sell. He rarely comes to Iran, just a few months in a year. In any her childbirth, he was not on her side. Last child was 8 months when her father saw her. She also works in the land of her husband’s father. They cultivate the summer crops and tomato.
My turn comes. When I came back she was not and her chair was empty. Perhaps she did not tolerate and take refuge elsewhere. As soon as said Hormozgan women, we unconsciously remember the image of colorful veils and port nice pants and costly. We remember the women covering veils with beautiful long and short dresses. Hanna tattoos on their hands and the brown cute faces of them when passing under the palm trees have been observed in films mostly.
Our mental image about Hormozgan women only is limited to their covers and color of skins; the local coverage that can be particularly attributed to Hormozgan women. But really are Hormozgan women hidden their real faces under their veils and colorful covers?
In 2015 in Hormozgan Province, 42 women less than 15 gave birth to a baby. From these, 18 cases were in cities and 24 cases were in villages. Also, 2975 women between the ages of 15 to 19 years living in this area gave birth to their children in this province. As a whole, Hormozgan is the province which the highest rates of child marriage occur in.
The table below lists the marriage of girls at different ages. The figures in this table are remarkable according to statistics of the marriage registration offices and national organization of civil registration. There have been recorded 9 marriages in girls less than 10, 595 marriages in girls between 10 to 14 years was recorded in just one year. While this province is one of areas that have a lot of unregistered marriages or delayed registered marriages.
Table 1: The number of registered marriages due to the ages of women at the time of marriage
One hypothesis has been always discussed:
Is early marriage one of the reasons of maternal and infant mortality?
Partly the answer to this question is yes because for having a healthy baby, the mother should have a healthy capable efficient body. Early marriage and subsequent early pregnancies cause the mothers’ body have no growth opportunities and the full development and leading to compact and short fetus. So there is no time for the evolution and productivity in order that the children do not have the process of proper development of full maturity.
The fact is that we have heard from the management of Hormozgan women less.
In most regions of Hormozgan Province, the men work in countries neighboring Persian Gulf, because of its proximity and the effective fields for economic activities and even they force to be far away from their families over many years. During this time, young women gained the responsibility of life very soon and are married at early ages due to traditional marriages and have children should manage the families in all aspects and the economical management of families, savings, responsibility for children training and animal husbandry in the absence of the husband without proper training in this field
In fact, women, as the sole administrator in their families, have the dual role.